Looking at English Through a Latin Lens

In the year 1618, The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) was touched off by an incident called "The Defenestration of Prague." The what?

Suppose you weren't familiar with that word "defenestration". How could you find out what it meant? You could look it up. Or, if you knew a little bit about Latin, you might be able to figure the word out for yourself.

Latin? What does Latin have to do with English? More than you might suppose. Let's find out.

In 43AD, during the reign of the Emperor Claudius, Roman legions invaded the island of Britain. After many hard battles, they conquered the people there and stayed for the next 350 years. They set up a government, built roads, established trade, and did one more thing: they spoke Latin.

In 1066, the Normans conquered England. They built castles and a thriving economy, and intermarried with the native population. And they did something else-they spoke French, a language that grew out of Latin.

These two cultural upheavals a thousand years apart had a profound influence on the English language. More than 50% of English words derive from Latin directly or through French. You use words that come from Latin every month of the year.

You don't think so? Just take a look at a calendar.

January From Janus, the Roman god of beginnings
February From Februarius, a festival of purification
March From Mars, the Roman god of war
April From medieval Latin aprilus
May From Maius (Maia), an ancient goddess of growth
June From Juno, Roman goddess of hearth and family
July Named for Julius Caesar
August Named for Augustus Caesar
September From stepem (seven) this was the seventh month of the Roman calendar
October From octo (eight) this was the eighth month of the Roman calendar
November From novem (nine) this was the ninth month of the Roman calendar
December From decem (ten) this was the tenth month of the Roman calendar

Latin still persists as Latin in some expressions. Have you ever said, "et cetera"? That's Latin for "and the rest." Have you ever heard the phrase "quid pro quo"? It means, "something for something", someone wants to make a deal. If something happens over and over again until we can't stand it any more, we say it's gone on ad nauseam (to the point of sickness)

Every time you touch a one-dollar bill, you've got some Latin in your hand. Look at the back of the bill. The banner in the eagle's beak says, "E pluribus unum" (out of many: one.) Above the pyramid is the phrase "Annuit coeptis" (He (meaning God) has increased our undertaking). Beneath the pyramid, it says "Novus ordo seclorum" (A new order for the ages.)

Some professions that at the time of the Normans used Latin exclusively, like law, still use many Latin phrases today. When a court adjourns and does not set a date to reconvene, it adjourns sine die (without a day). Someone who is not directly involved in a case may submit a brief as amicus curiae (friend of the court). A legal writ used to get someone released from custody is called habeas corpus (you should have the body).

But mostly, Latin words have become English words. The bulk of the words that come from Latin (linguists call them "Latinate" words) date from the Norman Conquest, and they fall into two categories. First are words that came straight from Latin without change. Read on for some examples of those.

How do you like to spend your time? Perhaps you like to watch a video (Latin for see). Maybe you'll watch the news about a dictator (absolute ruler) in a foreign land. Maybe you'll listen to the radio (ray) instead, or practice your tuba (trumpet), or your part for the chorus (group) concert. And don't forget to water your Mom's ficus (fig tree) like she asked you. If you don't, you'd better have a good alibi (someplace else).

Maybe you'd like to use the computer and run the cursor (runner) over your favorite games, until you get an error (mistake) message. Then you can always play with your cat Felix (happy), or go outside and take some pictures with your camera (room), or play fetch with your dog Fido (I am faithful). Sound like a super (over, above) day?

Many more Latinate words in English have been changed to a greater or lesser degree. Some are two or more Latin words (or pieces of words) in combination. If you know some common roots you can figure out the meanings of words you've never seen before. For example, if navigo is the Latin word for to sail, and circum means around, what does it mean to circumnavigate the world? If loquor means to talk, what does circumlocution mean? (To "talk around", never come to the point.)

Once you know the roots, you can see how they are combined to form all sorts of words. For example:

ex (out of) + patria (native land) = expatriate, a person who has traveled far from home.
Aqua (water) + duct (lead) = aqueduct, a system of piping water where it's needed
Quad (four) + lat(side) = quadrilateral, a figure with four sides.
Omni (all) + potens (powerful) = omnipotent, all-powerful, able to do anything

Some common roots are used in a lot of different words. The root vert means to turn. Adding different prefixes gives us:

re+ (back) =revert, to turn back to a former state or condition
per+ (completely) = pervert to turn completely from an intended use or goal
a+ (away) = avert to turn away, avoid, or prevent
dis, di +(aside) = divert to turn aside or distract
con+ (with) = convert, to turn someone or something with you, to your side
sub+ (from below) = subvert, to turn from below, to influence a group or movement secretly, from the inside
extro+ (outside) = extrovert, someone whose personality is turned outwards, who meets and greets other people
intro + (within) = introvert, some who is turned inward, a shy, retiring person.

The more roots you learn, the more words you can figure out. This study of how words came about is called Etymology. Your best tool to learn about words is a good, hard-cover dictionary. A quality dictionary will tell you not only what the word means, but also where the word came from.

And that defenestration thing? It has to do with something the Bohemian nobles did to the emperor's deputies. De means down from and fenestra means window. What do you think happened? You could look it up.…



The Small Scale World of Diorama Building

Pin by Petr on Diorama | Military diorama, Diorama, Wwii photos

The diorama, a three-dimensional miniaturized or full-scale replica of a larger scale model, environment, event, or location, has a unique appeal to a whole array of hobbyists and for many different reasons. A historian or teacher might want to recreate a famous event from history; a model train enthusiast may want to build a landscape for a scale model train to rocket through; while a war games enthusiast might want to build a battlefield for scale battles.

Dioramas are an integral part of most museums, often portraying early life and displaying fascinating life-size models against an artificial backdrop. Dioramas can be smaller than a shoebox or larger than a city block. In fact, there is much debate over exactly which diorama is the largest in the world because many dioramas claim the title of “World’s Largest Diorama of its kind.” Contenders for the title include museums of natural history, paintings and cityscapes.

Within the world of diorama creation, smaller hobby niches are carved out in the form of scale model miniatures, sculpting, painting, decorating, photography, and collecting. Even the realm of the fantasy world is not out of reach with the addition of fantasy miniatures such as dragons, elves, or even space aliens depending on what the setting calls for.

Diorama Supplies

The realism of dioramas has greatly improved with modern technology. Miniaturized lighting and electrical systems, resin and epoxy, plaster cloth and foam putties are just a few of the supplies and accessories than give a diorama an extra dimension. Before all of that can be put to use though, the modeler must have an idea of what they are attempting to create or recreate as the case may be.

Once a setting has been determined, the first step is creating the base. This can be done using a variety of mediums such as plaster, clay, paper-mâché, and foam, the most common of which can be purchased as a solid or spray. Because foam is lightweight and easy to shape it has easily taken the stage as a favorite in diorama building.


After the base is created, the real building begins with the application of artificial grasses, trees, rocks and even ‘solid’ water. Some dioramas replicate animal life while others focus on cities, people, or machines. Finally, the whole diorama is placed against a backdrop, usually a painted or photographic background, and it is ready for display.…



How to Become a Wireline Logging Engineer: Part 4

The basic engineers' training school is a major huddle to cross in the effort to becoming a wireline logging engineer. After completing the basic engineer's training school, the new engineer is on his or her way to achieving the dream of becoming a professional wireline logging engineer. The next stage of the training is the post-school. The post-school training is designed to help the new engineer gain more practical experience through hand-on practice and performance of various wireline logging operations under the supervision of a mentor or a senior engineer. The new engineer is assigned a mentor during the post-school period who will direct the post-school tasks and monitor progress and performance. This period also allows the new engineer to build his or her confidence in delivering quality services to the customer during his or her career in the coming years.

The new engineer practices his or her human relationship and emotional aspect of the job by interacting with crew members and customers during this period. Post-school also exposes the new engineer to the administrative, leadership, and management aspect of the job through interaction with other support groups in the organization. The objective of the mentor is to train the new engineer to breakout in three months or less. Breaking out is a process in which the engineer demonstrates his or her ability to mobilize, prepare, execute, and deliver high quality services to the customer without help from the mentor or other senior engineers. When the new engineer can do this, he or she is deemed competent enough to execute job and deliver products to the customer solo. Breaking out is the final right of passage the new engineer must go through to join the professional group of wireline logging engineers.

The breakout process is usually very formal and followed strictly and documented by the company. The first step is for the mentor of the new engineer to inform the location manager about the new engineer's readiness for the final breakout test. The location managers then assigns a complete open hole or cased hole job scheduled for a customer to the new engineer as his or her breakout test. The engineer will select and mobilize the equipment and crew for the job. He or she will also verify that the equipment is in good functional condition for the job. In addition, the engineer will organize the load out and transportation of the equipment and crew to the well site with help from logistics if required. To ensure smooth operation and customer satisfaction, the engineer must coordinate with the customer's representative to understand the customer's expectations. Important information to obtain from the customer include the logging program, the purpose of the job, time to arrive at the location, well condition, final products, and all other necessary information. At the well site the engineer and his or her crew must execute the job safely, effectively, timely, and professionally to pass the breakout test. If the engineer encounters any problem during the job, he or she must demonstrate the ability to troubleshoot, find, and fix the problem in a professional and timely manner.

In addition the engineer must demonstrate good leadership in dealing with the crew and influencing them to work together harmoniously to meet the customer's objectives. The engineer must also demonstrate good communication with the customer and deliver the appropriate products accurately, professionally, and to the satisfaction of the customer. The mentor or a senior engineer accompanies the engineer to the job site as an observer to evaluate the performance of the engineer on the breakout test. The outcome depends on the judgment of the observer who determines if the engineer has passed or failed the breakout test. If the engineer passes the test he or she joins the prestigious group of professional wireline logging engineer. This means he or she can start running revenue generating jobs unaided and enjoys the full benefits of a wireline logging engineer. On the hand, if he or she fails the test, the next step depends on the management. In some cases, the management will grant a second chance for the engineer to breakout. Otherwise the management will either assign the engineer to less difficult tasks or release him or her from the organization.

On average it takes about 18 months from hire to breakout for an engineer to qualify as a professional wireline logging engineer. The training process costs a great deal of money and time. This is why organizations take extreme care in selecting candidates to hire as potential wireline engineers. This concludes this series about how to become a wireline logging engineer. I hope this will help young and ambitious engineers out there to make up their minds about becoming a wireline logging engineer as a career in an oil field services organization.…



5 Ways to Make Money On Instagram

There are several ways to make money on Instagram, but it’s important that you only use methods that don’t violate the terms of service agreement of the site.

This includes anything that asks you to buy, sell, or try to alter the way that the site works in any way.

While a lot of people have made some quick and easy money through ads on the right side of the page, there are limits to what can be done, so you should only dabble.

The best strategy is still to build your followers and turn them into buyers by promoting the products that they want or love.

You can get a better feel for how to do this by reading the rest of this article.

Sponsored posts:

Some companies will pay you to promote their product on your page.

You don’t have to do all of the work, but some companies will throw in an extra post for free if you do.

For example, if you like pizza, they might send you a sponsored post on a monthly or quarterly basis.

You can also make money through sponsored stories, which allows you to write about someone who uses their product and give an honest review.

Photos and videos:

This is the bread and butter of Instagram marketing, you can read more at SMM World.

People enjoy visual content, especially on a site like Facebook where there is so much content already there for you to look at.

Take a lot of pictures from different places and post them to your account.

If you are into videos, make sure to post some to your page as well.

People love watching videos, so you’ll definitely have people following your updates if you can provide them with something interesting to watch.

The trick is to provide content that people will want to see on a regular basis, so keep your page updated all the time.

Business feeds:

You can set up a business feed that shows customers the latest products and deals that you’ve found on the web.

Most of the time, these feeds are updated manually by Instagram staff, but you can help them do this by adding links to your products on your page.

Business feeds can turn into huge profits for you, especially during the holiday season.

With so many people shopping on Black Friday and Christmas, make sure that you are one of the first people to show up with deals on these holidays.

Private messages:

You can make money through private messages on Instagram.

You can send other Instagram users messages that will only be seen by them.

You can sell anything that you want on your page, and you can even put coupon codes so that people can save money when they buy products off of your shelf.

Make sure that you read the guidelines carefully before you start sending messages so that you don’t get in trouble.

Engagement levels:

When you follow people on Instagram, you’ll increase your chances of them following you back as well.

The best way to attract followers is to make sure that your page is fun and engaging.

People love interacting on social media, so if you want to make money, make sure that you keep your page updated at all times.

If you constantly stay away from updates, then you’ll only have a handful of followers.


There are also many tips that you can find on the internet to help you make money.

One of the most popular ones is using coupon codes.

Coupons are great because they can save you some money on whatever you’re purchasing.

Make sure that you research each code thoroughly before you try it out on your page.

Instagram may seem like a gimmick at first, but you can make real money on it.

There are many different ways that you can go about making it work for you, though it helps to have a clear plan in mind before you get started.

Follow the above-mentioned tips and you should be able to make a lot of money off of your page in no time at all.

It’s a great way to share your pictures and let everyone know what you’re up to.…



Is test and tag a profitable business?

We’ve all seen the commercials and ads for test and tag businesses.

In this blog post, we’ll explore whether or not these companies are a viable option for business owners.

First, let’s look at what these types of companies do: they’re in charge of testing homes’ plumbing systems to ensure that there is no leakage from pipes or fixtures.

Next, we’ll examine the pros and cons of starting a test and tag company so you can determine if it would be a good fit for your own personal goals.

Finally, we will discuss how much money you could expect to make with this type of company once it has been up-and-running for five years based on different factors such as location, number of employees, etc.

In Australia, when we talk about the testing and tagging industry, we could be talking about a $100 million business or one that earns around $5 million to $10 million – depending on who you ask.

It’s difficult to define exactly how much revenue is brought in by companies involved with this sector because there could be many not-for-profit organizations running testing and tagging programs for schools, sporting clubs, and other groups barely turning over any profit.

However, there are certainly plenty of commercial operators making a tidy sum from their businesses.

For example, Brisbane-based company Toxguard runs tagging programs for thousands of children each week and has various outlets spread throughout the country.

This type of business is also supported by businesses such as Service First, which supplies equipment to firms in this sector, including cash registers and point of sale systems.

Mark Hewitt is one individual who has worked hard to carve out his own business in test and tag.

His company’s official name is National Electrical Safety (NES) Services, but he recognizes that these sorts of companies need an edge over their competition to ensure they can survive.

Mark tells us more about how he set up the business below:

“When I first started my electrical tester training course I had no idea there were so many opportunities out there for people with the right skills.

I had always worked in construction so I never really considered being a tester or testing company as an option, but now I wouldn’t have it any other way.”

“I was able to use my electrical skills along with my qualifications to get my business off the ground.

Once you know what the industry is about and how it works, then opportunities will start to become apparent through your own research into the specific test and tag companies.

Being a sole trader didn’t seem appealing at first because of the lack of security.

But when you find something you love doing it’s all worthwhile.”

“My advice to anyone thinking about setting up a test and tag business would be not to rush into things too quickly, if you decide to start a test and tag business in Australia, call your service something like “Testing and Tagging Melbourne“.

No matter what your market segment maybe, the whole idea of electrical safety compliance is pretty simple: make sure equipment used by others has been safely tested and indicate that it meets Australian Standards.

In manufacturing, there are two types of testing, Factory Mutual (FM) and Heavy Industries Science And Technology Association (HISTA).

With FM you are required to test or check that all installations comply with Australian Standards at least once every six months.

Has varied depending on the type of equipment being used in your business – whether it’s power tools, forklifts, or other plant equipment.

The main advantage of hiring an electrical tester is that you don’t have to buy your own test and tag equipment.

However, if you do decide to set up your own business as a testing company then there are various forms of equipment needed such as lockout gear, plug testers, and earth fault loop impedance testers.

You can get all the necessary equipment from Service First Electrical.

Mark Hewitt says it’s important to stay close with customers so they know exactly where their maintenance funds are being spent.

This also provides the opportunity for businesses to create good relationships with clients so they can be given higher priority in any emergency situation.

“It’s really important to keep your finger on the pulse when it comes to industry trends because this way you will always be the first to hear about market opportunities.

For example, if you’re in the area of power tools then it would be wise to know what other types of equipment companies are using.”

“All information is good info when it comes to this business, so I’m always on the lookout for new opportunities.

If there’s one thing that I’ve learned it’s you shouldn’t try and tackle all your problems by yourself.

Sooner or later these things will come back and bite you if not resolved properly.”

“You’ve got to stay ahead of the game even though the basic idea might seem simple enough.”…


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What Car Should I Buy: A Beginner Guide!

What car should I buy for a beginner?

There are several cars you can start with, starting with an economical small car towing a light trailer behind a truck.

It is best to find at least two cars that are affordable and will get you on the road.

Once you know how safe a car is to drive, you can work your way up to a more powerful sports car.

The type of car you should buy depends on your style of driving, safety concerns, your wallet, and your needs as a driver.

When you consider what cars to buy for a beginner, the first thing you need to consider is the safety rating of the vehicle.

Is it worth buying or should you stay away?

How safe is it?

This question is most important when it comes to four-door sedans.

If the car has a low rating, it may not be worth buying, especially if the car will be used for transporting children.

A safe driver can get good grades in school, but that doesn’t mean you can take your car out on the highway without knowing how to drive it.

In fact, some people who are involved in an accident don’t even know how to fix their cars.

That is why it is so important to purchase a safe car.

There are so many different makes and models available on the market today that finding one that has been well maintained can help you avoid any costly repairs in the future.

Before you even begin thinking about what car to buy for a beginner, you want to think about what level of driving you plan to do.

Are you just learning to drive for pleasure or do you have a goal of becoming a safe, dependable driver?

Even if you want to become a safe driver, you can start by selecting a safe car from the beginning.

This is a great way to begin learning how to drive because you won’t have to worry about losing money if you get into an accident or have an accident that costs you lots of money.

The first and best thing you need to do is find out how safe the car you want to purchase is before you even begin looking.

You should first try to find out how much damage each vehicle has been through.

In most cases, vehicles that are sold for cheap are known to be unsafe because they have been abused.

Ask friends or family members if they can recommend any reliable dealers who sell cars for cheap.

If you don’t have anyone who can give you advice [click here] you can always check online to see what other people have said about various dealers.

Another way to find out about the safety of a particular car is to ask around your community.

People living around you will be able to tell you if a car is safe to drive or not.

Of course, you have to take their word for it, but it’s a good idea to ask around.

What car should I buy for a beginner to help them become a safe driver?

It would also be a great idea to find out from your local police force if they know of any reliable dealers in your area.

Ask them for advice.

What car should I buy for a beginner to help them become a safe driver?

If you are new to driving, you should get a vehicle that has a high safety ranking.

High-ranking cars are known to have a reduced chance of having accidents, which means that they are less likely to cost you a lot of money in repairs.

Now that you have found out what car should I buy for a beginner, you should make sure that you are ready to go out and drive it.

You never know when you might have an accident, and it would be horrible if you had an accident while on your first trip with your new car.

You never know when something may happen that could have unforeseen consequences.

That is why it is important to make sure that you are insured because if you get into an accident without insurance, you could owe a lot of money and be unable to get any money to fix the car.…



Zipper Fashion Rosettes

Metal zipper
Fabric scrap
Hot glue
White glue

You might have been saving zippers to sew into other garments, if those zippers go bad, but sewing zippers into clothing isn’t the only way to reuse them. Cut zippers up and use them in an unusual way to make embellishments for fashions and home decorating projects, rosettes for crafting, and other fanciful items. If you already have zippers, you won’t pay a penny for the rosettes, which can be used in many different ways.

Unzip a zipper and cut it, straight across, to remove the zipper pull, and to separate the two sides of the zipper. Since each piece has fabric stitched to it, it’s necessary to remove the cloth. Cut the stitches to remove the biggest part of it; use a lighter to burn off the rest. Remember to hold the zipper with a potholder because the zipper will get hot as you burn the fabric off.

When all of the cloth is off of the zipper it’s the easiest thing to turn it into a rosette. Simply lay it flat on a table and begin winding it around itself. Hold one end down, and wrap the other end around and around the stationary end. You’ll make a flat circle of zipper teeth, which is metallic and lovely. If you want the rosette to be larger than it is when you finish wrapping, use a dot of hot glue to hold the end in place, and start wrapping another zipper-half around it.

The rosette you make is a flat one but you can give it dimension by making another one on top of it. The top rosette should be a bit smaller than the bottom one. Add another rosette, and another, to create the depth that you want; make each rosette smaller than the previous one.

The zipper rosette will be easiest to attach if you glue a piece of cloth or felt to the bottom of it. Glue the finished flower to a purse, a garment, a lampshade, a mirror or picture frame corner, or even a hat. Attach it to a piece of fabric to make a curtain tie-back, or make a large zipper rosette, and turn it into a coaster.

Don’t like the metallic color of the rosette? Paint it! You can easily spray paint the zipper before you start, or paint the rosette when you’re finished. That gives you many options for coordinating colors on your fashions, or for your home decorating.