Looking at English Through a Latin Lens

In the year 1618, The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) was touched off by an incident called "The Defenestration of Prague." The what?

Suppose you weren't familiar with that word "defenestration". How could you find out what it meant? You could look it up. Or, if you knew a little bit about Latin, you might be able to figure the word out for yourself.

Latin? What does Latin have to do with English? More than you might suppose. Let's find out.

In 43AD, during the reign of the Emperor Claudius, Roman legions invaded the island of Britain. After many hard battles, they conquered the people there and stayed for the next 350 years. They set up a government, built roads, established trade, and did one more thing: they spoke Latin.

In 1066, the Normans conquered England. They built castles and a thriving economy, and intermarried with the native population. And they did something else-they spoke French, a language that grew out of Latin.

These two cultural upheavals a thousand years apart had a profound influence on the English language. More than 50% of English words derive from Latin directly or through French. You use words that come from Latin every month of the year.

You don't think so? Just take a look at a calendar.

January From Janus, the Roman god of beginnings
February From Februarius, a festival of purification
March From Mars, the Roman god of war
April From medieval Latin aprilus
May From Maius (Maia), an ancient goddess of growth
June From Juno, Roman goddess of hearth and family
July Named for Julius Caesar
August Named for Augustus Caesar
September From stepem (seven) this was the seventh month of the Roman calendar
October From octo (eight) this was the eighth month of the Roman calendar
November From novem (nine) this was the ninth month of the Roman calendar
December From decem (ten) this was the tenth month of the Roman calendar

Latin still persists as Latin in some expressions. Have you ever said, "et cetera"? That's Latin for "and the rest." Have you ever heard the phrase "quid pro quo"? It means, "something for something", someone wants to make a deal. If something happens over and over again until we can't stand it any more, we say it's gone on ad nauseam (to the point of sickness)

Every time you touch a one-dollar bill, you've got some Latin in your hand. Look at the back of the bill. The banner in the eagle's beak says, "E pluribus unum" (out of many: one.) Above the pyramid is the phrase "Annuit coeptis" (He (meaning God) has increased our undertaking). Beneath the pyramid, it says "Novus ordo seclorum" (A new order for the ages.)

Some professions that at the time of the Normans used Latin exclusively, like law, still use many Latin phrases today. When a court adjourns and does not set a date to reconvene, it adjourns sine die (without a day). Someone who is not directly involved in a case may submit a brief as amicus curiae (friend of the court). A legal writ used to get someone released from custody is called habeas corpus (you should have the body).

But mostly, Latin words have become English words. The bulk of the words that come from Latin (linguists call them "Latinate" words) date from the Norman Conquest, and they fall into two categories. First are words that came straight from Latin without change. Read on for some examples of those.

How do you like to spend your time? Perhaps you like to watch a video (Latin for see). Maybe you'll watch the news about a dictator (absolute ruler) in a foreign land. Maybe you'll listen to the radio (ray) instead, or practice your tuba (trumpet), or your part for the chorus (group) concert. And don't forget to water your Mom's ficus (fig tree) like she asked you. If you don't, you'd better have a good alibi (someplace else).

Maybe you'd like to use the computer and run the cursor (runner) over your favorite games, until you get an error (mistake) message. Then you can always play with your cat Felix (happy), or go outside and take some pictures with your camera (room), or play fetch with your dog Fido (I am faithful). Sound like a super (over, above) day?

Many more Latinate words in English have been changed to a greater or lesser degree. Some are two or more Latin words (or pieces of words) in combination. If you know some common roots you can figure out the meanings of words you've never seen before. For example, if navigo is the Latin word for to sail, and circum means around, what does it mean to circumnavigate the world? If loquor means to talk, what does circumlocution mean? (To "talk around", never come to the point.)

Once you know the roots, you can see how they are combined to form all sorts of words. For example:

ex (out of) + patria (native land) = expatriate, a person who has traveled far from home.
Aqua (water) + duct (lead) = aqueduct, a system of piping water where it's needed
Quad (four) + lat(side) = quadrilateral, a figure with four sides.
Omni (all) + potens (powerful) = omnipotent, all-powerful, able to do anything

Some common roots are used in a lot of different words. The root vert means to turn. Adding different prefixes gives us:

re+ (back) =revert, to turn back to a former state or condition
per+ (completely) = pervert to turn completely from an intended use or goal
a+ (away) = avert to turn away, avoid, or prevent
dis, di +(aside) = divert to turn aside or distract
con+ (with) = convert, to turn someone or something with you, to your side
sub+ (from below) = subvert, to turn from below, to influence a group or movement secretly, from the inside
extro+ (outside) = extrovert, someone whose personality is turned outwards, who meets and greets other people
intro + (within) = introvert, some who is turned inward, a shy, retiring person.

The more roots you learn, the more words you can figure out. This study of how words came about is called Etymology. Your best tool to learn about words is a good, hard-cover dictionary. A quality dictionary will tell you not only what the word means, but also where the word came from.

And that defenestration thing? It has to do with something the Bohemian nobles did to the emperor's deputies. De means down from and fenestra means window. What do you think happened? You could look it up.…



The Small Scale World of Diorama Building

Pin by Petr on Diorama | Military diorama, Diorama, Wwii photos

The diorama, a three-dimensional miniaturized or full-scale replica of a larger scale model, environment, event, or location, has a unique appeal to a whole array of hobbyists and for many different reasons. A historian or teacher might want to recreate a famous event from history; a model train enthusiast may want to build a landscape for a scale model train to rocket through; while a war games enthusiast might want to build a battlefield for scale battles.

Dioramas are an integral part of most museums, often portraying early life and displaying fascinating life-size models against an artificial backdrop. Dioramas can be smaller than a shoebox or larger than a city block. In fact, there is much debate over exactly which diorama is the largest in the world because many dioramas claim the title of “World’s Largest Diorama of its kind.” Contenders for the title include museums of natural history, paintings and cityscapes.

Within the world of diorama creation, smaller hobby niches are carved out in the form of scale model miniatures, sculpting, painting, decorating, photography, and collecting. Even the realm of the fantasy world is not out of reach with the addition of fantasy miniatures such as dragons, elves, or even space aliens depending on what the setting calls for.

Diorama Supplies

The realism of dioramas has greatly improved with modern technology. Miniaturized lighting and electrical systems, resin and epoxy, plaster cloth and foam putties are just a few of the supplies and accessories than give a diorama an extra dimension. Before all of that can be put to use though, the modeler must have an idea of what they are attempting to create or recreate as the case may be.

Once a setting has been determined, the first step is creating the base. This can be done using a variety of mediums such as plaster, clay, paper-mâché, and foam, the most common of which can be purchased as a solid or spray. Because foam is lightweight and easy to shape it has easily taken the stage as a favorite in diorama building.


After the base is created, the real building begins with the application of artificial grasses, trees, rocks and even ‘solid’ water. Some dioramas replicate animal life while others focus on cities, people, or machines. Finally, the whole diorama is placed against a backdrop, usually a painted or photographic background, and it is ready for display.…



How to Become a Wireline Logging Engineer: Part 4

The basic engineers' training school is a major huddle to cross in the effort to becoming a wireline logging engineer. After completing the basic engineer's training school, the new engineer is on his or her way to achieving the dream of becoming a professional wireline logging engineer. The next stage of the training is the post-school. The post-school training is designed to help the new engineer gain more practical experience through hand-on practice and performance of various wireline logging operations under the supervision of a mentor or a senior engineer. The new engineer is assigned a mentor during the post-school period who will direct the post-school tasks and monitor progress and performance. This period also allows the new engineer to build his or her confidence in delivering quality services to the customer during his or her career in the coming years.

The new engineer practices his or her human relationship and emotional aspect of the job by interacting with crew members and customers during this period. Post-school also exposes the new engineer to the administrative, leadership, and management aspect of the job through interaction with other support groups in the organization. The objective of the mentor is to train the new engineer to breakout in three months or less. Breaking out is a process in which the engineer demonstrates his or her ability to mobilize, prepare, execute, and deliver high quality services to the customer without help from the mentor or other senior engineers. When the new engineer can do this, he or she is deemed competent enough to execute job and deliver products to the customer solo. Breaking out is the final right of passage the new engineer must go through to join the professional group of wireline logging engineers.

The breakout process is usually very formal and followed strictly and documented by the company. The first step is for the mentor of the new engineer to inform the location manager about the new engineer's readiness for the final breakout test. The location managers then assigns a complete open hole or cased hole job scheduled for a customer to the new engineer as his or her breakout test. The engineer will select and mobilize the equipment and crew for the job. He or she will also verify that the equipment is in good functional condition for the job. In addition, the engineer will organize the load out and transportation of the equipment and crew to the well site with help from logistics if required. To ensure smooth operation and customer satisfaction, the engineer must coordinate with the customer's representative to understand the customer's expectations. Important information to obtain from the customer include the logging program, the purpose of the job, time to arrive at the location, well condition, final products, and all other necessary information. At the well site the engineer and his or her crew must execute the job safely, effectively, timely, and professionally to pass the breakout test. If the engineer encounters any problem during the job, he or she must demonstrate the ability to troubleshoot, find, and fix the problem in a professional and timely manner.

In addition the engineer must demonstrate good leadership in dealing with the crew and influencing them to work together harmoniously to meet the customer's objectives. The engineer must also demonstrate good communication with the customer and deliver the appropriate products accurately, professionally, and to the satisfaction of the customer. The mentor or a senior engineer accompanies the engineer to the job site as an observer to evaluate the performance of the engineer on the breakout test. The outcome depends on the judgment of the observer who determines if the engineer has passed or failed the breakout test. If the engineer passes the test he or she joins the prestigious group of professional wireline logging engineer. This means he or she can start running revenue generating jobs unaided and enjoys the full benefits of a wireline logging engineer. On the hand, if he or she fails the test, the next step depends on the management. In some cases, the management will grant a second chance for the engineer to breakout. Otherwise the management will either assign the engineer to less difficult tasks or release him or her from the organization.

On average it takes about 18 months from hire to breakout for an engineer to qualify as a professional wireline logging engineer. The training process costs a great deal of money and time. This is why organizations take extreme care in selecting candidates to hire as potential wireline engineers. This concludes this series about how to become a wireline logging engineer. I hope this will help young and ambitious engineers out there to make up their minds about becoming a wireline logging engineer as a career in an oil field services organization.…


Family / Posts

What Car Should I Buy: A Beginner Guide!

What car should I buy for a beginner?

There are several cars you can start with, starting with an economical small car towing a light trailer behind a truck.

It is best to find at least two cars that are affordable and will get you on the road.

Once you know how safe a car is to drive, you can work your way up to a more powerful sports car.

The type of car you should buy depends on your style of driving, safety concerns, your wallet, and your needs as a driver.

When you consider what cars to buy for a beginner, the first thing you need to consider is the safety rating of the vehicle.

Is it worth buying or should you stay away?

How safe is it?

This question is most important when it comes to four-door sedans.

If the car has a low rating, it may not be worth buying, especially if the car will be used for transporting children.

A safe driver can get good grades in school, but that doesn’t mean you can take your car out on the highway without knowing how to drive it.

In fact, some people who are involved in an accident don’t even know how to fix their cars.

That is why it is so important to purchase a safe car.

There are so many different makes and models available on the market today that finding one that has been well maintained can help you avoid any costly repairs in the future.

Before you even begin thinking about what car to buy for a beginner, you want to think about what level of driving you plan to do.

Are you just learning to drive for pleasure or do you have a goal of becoming a safe, dependable driver?

Even if you want to become a safe driver, you can start by selecting a safe car from the beginning.

This is a great way to begin learning how to drive because you won’t have to worry about losing money if you get into an accident or have an accident that costs you lots of money.

The first and best thing you need to do is find out how safe the car you want to purchase is before you even begin looking.

You should first try to find out how much damage each vehicle has been through.

In most cases, vehicles that are sold for cheap are known to be unsafe because they have been abused.

Ask friends or family members if they can recommend any reliable dealers who sell cars for cheap.

If you don’t have anyone who can give you advice [click here] you can always check online to see what other people have said about various dealers.

Another way to find out about the safety of a particular car is to ask around your community.

People living around you will be able to tell you if a car is safe to drive or not.

Of course, you have to take their word for it, but it’s a good idea to ask around.

What car should I buy for a beginner to help them become a safe driver?

It would also be a great idea to find out from your local police force if they know of any reliable dealers in your area.

Ask them for advice.

What car should I buy for a beginner to help them become a safe driver?

If you are new to driving, you should get a vehicle that has a high safety ranking.

High-ranking cars are known to have a reduced chance of having accidents, which means that they are less likely to cost you a lot of money in repairs.

Now that you have found out what car should I buy for a beginner, you should make sure that you are ready to go out and drive it.

You never know when you might have an accident, and it would be horrible if you had an accident while on your first trip with your new car.

You never know when something may happen that could have unforeseen consequences.

That is why it is important to make sure that you are insured because if you get into an accident without insurance, you could owe a lot of money and be unable to get any money to fix the car.…



Zipper Fashion Rosettes

Metal zipper
Fabric scrap
Hot glue
White glue

You might have been saving zippers to sew into other garments, if those zippers go bad, but sewing zippers into clothing isn’t the only way to reuse them. Cut zippers up and use them in an unusual way to make embellishments for fashions and home decorating projects, rosettes for crafting, and other fanciful items. If you already have zippers, you won’t pay a penny for the rosettes, which can be used in many different ways.

Unzip a zipper and cut it, straight across, to remove the zipper pull, and to separate the two sides of the zipper. Since each piece has fabric stitched to it, it’s necessary to remove the cloth. Cut the stitches to remove the biggest part of it; use a lighter to burn off the rest. Remember to hold the zipper with a potholder because the zipper will get hot as you burn the fabric off.

When all of the cloth is off of the zipper it’s the easiest thing to turn it into a rosette. Simply lay it flat on a table and begin winding it around itself. Hold one end down, and wrap the other end around and around the stationary end. You’ll make a flat circle of zipper teeth, which is metallic and lovely. If you want the rosette to be larger than it is when you finish wrapping, use a dot of hot glue to hold the end in place, and start wrapping another zipper-half around it.

The rosette you make is a flat one but you can give it dimension by making another one on top of it. The top rosette should be a bit smaller than the bottom one. Add another rosette, and another, to create the depth that you want; make each rosette smaller than the previous one.

The zipper rosette will be easiest to attach if you glue a piece of cloth or felt to the bottom of it. Glue the finished flower to a purse, a garment, a lampshade, a mirror or picture frame corner, or even a hat. Attach it to a piece of fabric to make a curtain tie-back, or make a large zipper rosette, and turn it into a coaster.

Don’t like the metallic color of the rosette? Paint it! You can easily spray paint the zipper before you start, or paint the rosette when you’re finished. That gives you many options for coordinating colors on your fashions, or for your home decorating.


Internet / Posts

How to Build an Instagram Following From Scratch

With close to 500 million users, and counting, Instagram is slowly becoming a leading social media site, and we will try to help you get your first followers.

Simplicity is a major part of success when it comes to Instagram, and as we live in the society where information overload is a normal thing scrolling through the pictures with short captions seems like a perfect combination.

Both major and minor brands are trying to capitalize on this fast rise, so you should consider start to buy followers for instagram and avoid missing out on this opportunity.

In the next few paragraphs, we will lay down a roadmap and try to explain how to get free instagram likes daily, whether you manage your personal or professional Instagram profile.

1. Figure out your strategy

Before going any further, you should answer these few questions.

What is your end goal on Instagram?

Creating a community of regular paying customers on you web page from followers while providing good service. This is a top priority!

How will your Instagram page affect your business?


Your best bet is to have few established Instagram users in your niche promoting your product in exchange for money or free stuff. This way, you can bring traffic to you web page fast and have a better conversion.

What are you going to offer to your followers?

Ask questions, research, ask your peers what kind of content would they like to see from you. Check what hashtags are your followers using and use them in your posts only if they are relevant, you don’t want to annoy them.

After you got this down, you are ready to move on.

2. Setting up your Instagram profile.

This one is pretty straight forward. You just need to fill some basic info and add your profile picture.

Profile image

You should consider an image that is representing your product or your brand. Logo of your company is always a good solution.

Your bio

If you are not an established brand already, then you need to utilize this feature as much as possible. Make it sound natural and positive; you can also use symbols.

Link to your web page.

If you use Instagram for business, then this one is really important. Add your web page address at the end of your bio. This will give your followers a chance to buy your product and turn them into your customers. Make sure that your web page is mobile friendly; most of the Instagram users are on their mobile phones.

3. Setting up your content plan.

Goals and KPIs (key performance indicators like shares, comments, likes) are essential. Set them and use them to track your progress.
Your next step should be schedule for content uploading. There are various apps that can help you with this like ScheduGram or Simply Measured.


Choose pictures that you are about to post very carefully. Use only pictures that are related to your brand and your brand’s story. Make sure that quality of a picture, description and hashtags are all on point.
When it comes to effectiveness, you should consider this:

Brand-inspired images

Posting beautiful images with a powerful message can bring you a lot of exposure as people tend to react to the images that trigger emotions.
Some of the biggest brands in the world are using this technique and investing money in the production of their photos so they can use the power of visual storytelling to their advantage.

Reactive storytelling

Reactive storytelling is a great way of sparking conversation because when businesses use this technique, they can leverage a human truth or insight to generate instant feedback. This includes a cultural action, a brand relevant action or a niche action.

Inspirational quotes

One of the best ways to create a viral buzz is to trigger a strong emotional response. If you can achieve this, there is a big chance that you are going to see more shares, likes, and comments on your posts.
You should start by preparing ten images; this will be enough for the next three to four days, depends on how you spread them.

A Track Maven released a report suggesting that major brands are getting thirty-seven likes and comments per thousand followers. That’s 3.7 reactions for every hundred followers you make.

4. Build relationships with influencing people

There are places where you can get exposure and more followers like FreeInstagramFollowersNow.com, but there are people that have a big influence, and they are available only through direct contact. You can offer them free promotional stuff for shares, or pay them for the shoutout.


Instagram Direct is probably the best way for you to get in touch with the person who can help you promoting your product. It is private so you can send your offer that only influencer and you can see.

5. Manage your profile

With you profile, your connections and followers in place, it is time to manage your account. You can find a lot of very useful applications that can give you a better overview of your activities and activities on your account and also give you statistic and charts. Always have content ready for deployment and use the schedule as much as possible, it will make your life a lot easier.

How to grow an Instagram account from SCRATCH (With ZERO Followers!) - YouTube

Final thoughts

By now we hope that you realize how easy it is to have a successful Instagram page. Visual content is in high demand, and millions of users are already making a good use of it. Just remember to be clear with your ideas and always be in contact with your followers and respect them so you can see your brand grow and flourish.

Make sure to connect your Instagram page to your other social media accounts. This way you will be able to spread your brand and reach more people.
Leave your comments below and let us know if you had any success with the roadmap that we laid out for you, and how you managed to push your Instagram campaign to the next level.…



Having and Planning Family Night

Family night is growing more popular as children are finding more things outside of the home to do. Here are some tips and ideas to help you plan and have a wonderful family night.

Set a night of the week that everyone will be home and available. Plan your family night for this night.

Tell each family member and post it on the refrigerator, calendar and anywhere else that you can think of that will help remind everyone.

Decide your plans for family night. Do you want to play games, go somewhere else, see a movie or something else creative. There are some tips and ideas at the end of this article.

Do any shopping that is needed for that night prior to the scheduled night. This will reduce the stress on you.

On the planned day be sure to remind everyone that that night is family night and what time it is planned for.

Enjoy the night with your family and have lots of fun.


For each family night, choose a different family member and make on of their favorite meals.

Choose games that everyone enjoys. Some popular games are Monopoly, Uno, Yahtzee, Scrabble, Cranium and Trivial Pursuit. If you don’t have any games you can do several things to get some. Go to www.freecycle.org and sign up. Once signed up post a wanted ad for games and activities. Search at garage sales and thrift stores. You would be surprised what you can find in these places. If all else fails, and you can afford it, go to the store and purchase new ones.

Family night doesn’t have to be indoors or about games. You can take it outside or anywhere. Go to the park, play volleyball, go swimming, go to a museum, go to a movie, etc.

Make sure that everyone feels included. This will make family night much easier on you and more exciting for everyone else.

Try to do something different each night. Don’t tell everyone what activities you have planned. This will heighten the enjoyment and anticipation. Repeating the same activity will bore them and discourage everyone from wanting to do it again.

Don’t put too much pressure on yourself to plan the perfect night. This will discourage you from wanting to plan and do this again. Remember this is supposed to be fun. Things happen and it is OK. Just pick it up and try again.

If you have little children, plan many different things. Remember that young children have a smaller attention span and will lose interest quickly.

Ideas for young children could be anything such as reading books, playing with blocks or legos, coloring, doing crafts (also good for older children as well), watching a movie, playing outside, going to the park, etc.

Remember that family night is not about what you do. It is about being together as a family and enjoying each others company and time.

If it doesn’t go great the first time, don’t give up. Use this time as an example and change the way you do things and what you plan for the next time.

Once you start having weekly family nights, sit down at the end of each one and ask for suggestions for other family nights. This helps everyone feel involved and helps you come up with new ideas.

Try having a themed night. This could include Hawaiian night, pajama party, camping or whatever else you can think of. This makes things fun and exciting and you can come up with some pretty creative stuff to do.

Have a night where you all make the meal together or instead of making a meal, everyone makes their favorite snack. (It’s OK to do this every once in a while.)

I hope these ideas have helped you come up with some activities and a great way to plan your family night. Enjoy your family and the time you have together.…