History of Indian Engineers Working in America

Four young engineering graduates from India were discovering that their conception of the U.S. -gathered from text books and other literature-as an industrial giant, is true. The four were among 15 of their fellow countrymen who are starting a year's training at Inland Steel Co. in the manufacturing of steel. When they finished, they returned home to take up important positions in India's growing steel industry. Although in the U.S. little more than a month, some of their preconceived notions about America and Americans dissolved. For example, 23-year-old H. K. DasGupta of Delhi, youngest in the group, expected to see wholesale slaughter on streets and highways.

Newspaper reports after the Korean War stated that the U.S. casualties in the conflict were less than a year's highway toll, gave him this impression. S. C. Gupta, 25, of Rajasthan, is somewhat appalled over the lack of shortwave radios in American homes. Even International House in Chicago where the 15 are living, was not equipped to pick up foreign programs, he noted. At home everyone listens to the Voice of America, the British Broadcasting Service and Moscow Radio in addition to local stations, Gupta pointed,out, adding that the reason probably is India's need of foreign assistance in her development. S. Subramanyan, 25, of Madras, as a logical conclusion of America being pictured as a booming industrial nation, expected to find men and women here acting like robots, who spent most of their waking hours at work. But he admitted now, nothing could be further from the truth.

Aix agreed with P. Kalsy, 24, of Punjab, that Americana were "very hospitable," not the least bit formal like most Britishers. U.S. movies, the group, believed to give the wrong impression of the country and easily lead to the idea that Americans are never sober. The four also were amazed at the great number of women who smoke. They thought rock 'n roll music was horrible, and they reported that Jerry Lewis and Danny Kaye are very popular in India. As for India's political future, they agreed that "we're not soft toward Russia or the U.S." All India wanted, they said, was to develop herself free of outside political interference. The 15 engineers were beginning their third week in the U.S. as part of the Indian Steel Training and Education Program, a project created by a $1,500,000 grant from the Ford Foundation to assist India's vital need for trained industrial personnel. Students were selected by the Indian government to study America's steel industry and production first hand.

They were guaranteed jobs upon their return and pledged to work in India's steel industry a minimumof five years. Sponsors of the program were the Ford Foundation,'American Iron and Steel Institute, United Steelworkers of America and the Indian Ministry of Iron and Steel. Participating companies besides Inland include United States Steel Corp., Bethlehem Steel Co., Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp., National Steel Corp,, Republic Steel Corp.,.and Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co.

In Addition to factory training, the engineers spent one day, a week in a university classroom studying steel manufacturing theory and, at the request of the Indian government, American cultural and social customs. For the two groups in the Calumet Region, one was already at the Gary Works of U.S. Steel. The Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago was offering the classroom instruction. Other cooperating universities are Carnegie Institute of Technology, Case Institute of Technology, Leheigh University and Youngstown University.

Source: "History Of The Corps of Engineers in The Indian Army: 1947-1972" by Abhinav…



How to Become a Wireline Logging Engineer: Part 2

The journey to become a professional wireline logging engineer starts when an organization hires you as a new field engineer in training. As I mentioned before, the logging engineer profession is challenging mentally, emotionally, and physically and it is not for everyone. Some candidates become interested in the profession simply because of the high earning potential without fully understanding what the job entails. Although the reward is attractive, the demands are equally challenging and require people of certain attitudes to survive the physical, emotional, and mental rigor the job demands. For this reason, most wireline services organizations have designed a pre-school program as the starting point for a new hire. The pre-school program exposes the new engineer to what the job entails and allows him or her to decide if the job and the schedule fit his or her life style.

The pre-school period allows the new employee to have some exposure to the work environment before committing to join the organization. At this time, the new hire signs a temporary contract with the organization which allows him or her go through the pre-school program without committing to full employment with the organization. The pre-school period usually lasts for one to three months. During this period the potential employee spends time in a field location working with full time logging engineers and crew on rig site mostly as an observer. The new hire is usually assigned a training program and a mentor. The mentor is a senior field engineer who will help the new hire go through the pre-school program and evaluate his or her readiness to go to basic logging engineers' training school.

During the pre-school, the new hire must accomplished several key tasks required of a field engineer. This period is especially challenging for a new hire because he or she is exposed to many different new tasks all of which he or she must master in relatively short time. The pre-school period is also stressful because the new trainee engineer is the favorite for all full fledge field engineer to assign their various extra duties. The pre-school period is designed to test the physical, mental, and emotional strength of the trainee engineer to the limit while helping him or her to learn the rudimentary of the logging engineer profession. Most new hire will pretty much make up his or her mind whether this is the right job or not before the end of the pre-school period.

After completing the pre-school successfully, a new hire can decide to accept the offer of a full employment with the organization. The new hire is then ready to continue the next stage in the training program which is attending the basic school for logging engineers. The basic school lasts for about 12 to 15 weeks depending on the organization. The basic school will be discussed in part 3 of this article.…



Looking for a Copier Engineer…..Job Opportunity for Someone Who is Looking to Make 100k…in San Diego

I am an IT Consultant who has a client that is looking for a Copier Engineer. I have searched Monster, Career Builder and ComputerJobs…to no avail. This position is a huge demand and as difficult for the employer to find. Does anyone have any suggestions?…



A Crash Course in Live Recording From the Engineer's Perspective

With the birth of digital recording equipment, live recording is becoming more feasible. In its simplest from, live recording can be a laptop connected to a microphone. Whether it is a complex 16 or 24 channel interface with a multitude of microphones, or a cheesy stereo microphone attached to an old tape recorder, preparation is key during a live recording.

Since you only have as much time as the band to set up, you must work quickly. It helps to have all of your microphones and microphone stands set up before the band goes on, that way you can just plop the microphones in front of their corresponding instruments. Find out ahead of time if you need to split the lead vocals microphone signal and the PA. If you do not have a microphone splitter, try to set up a microphone next to the singer's microphone (which connects to the PA) and ask him to sing into both. By the time you place the microphones in front of the guitar amplifiers and lead singer, and wire these back to your interface, the drummer should be done setting up his kit. This is your cue to run in there with the overhead microphones and kick drum microphone. To avoid confusion, you should memorize the order of the tracks in your recording program and which microphone they are connected to. For example, track 1 and 2 are the drum overheads, track 3 is the kick drum, track 4 is the bass guitar, etc. If you wire your microphones in the same order each time you do a live recording, it helps remind you which track is assigned to which microphone and what order to connect it to the interface.

Now all of your microphones are connected to the interface and in place on stage. However, you cannot relax yet. Boot up your interface and start a new session for the live recording. It is best to invest in an external hard drive, that way you don't have to worry about running out of space during the show. Another trick to avoid a potential crash during the show is to increase the hardware buffer (usually 128, 256, 512, or 1024), which would increase the latency between the sound and the recording, but it would increase stability, which is everything in a live recording. So instead of using 128 during a track by track recording, I use 256 for an all at once, live recording. Plan to record straight through the entire set, and try to mix the tracks quickly during the sound check. Once you get the mix to a comfortable level, take note of any instruments or singers that may need special attention during the show. I like to keep one hand on the volume for the lead singer, as in live shows, the dynamics of the voice tend to be too loud or too soft. If your interface is powerful enough, you could run the vocals through an auxiliary compressor track, but this may risk an interface crash which would totally ruin the recording. It is best to run the minimum amount of plug-ins possible and stick with the minimum amount of tracks as well. Some other things to look out for would be the use of effects by the band, which may or may not increase the volume of the track. Most guitarists match the volumes for their clean and distorted channels, but you can never be sure.

So the tracks are mixed nicely and you are recording into the second song, can you relax yet? Not really. You should constantly monitor the levels of the tracks and also check up on the microphones, for some may get knocked over or repositioned in some of the crazier shows. I find that the kick drum microphone is the hardest to keep still. After the set, you still have to be on your toes in order to break all the equipment down in time for the next band. The best routine is to disconnect all the microphone cables and start moving the microphones off stage. After you have gathered all of the stands and microphones, start winding up your microphone cables. "Snake" cables and snake boxes are best for live recording because it organizes all of your cables on stage to meet at one convenient box, which has a multitude of microphone cable inputs. If you had a snake cable, then this would make the breakdown process easier as well as provide you with more distance from the interface and the stage. The hardest part of the breakdown is to stay out of the musician's way as they get their gear off the stage. Just make sure you are constantly moving your gear off the stage to a open spot next to the stage, where you can break down your gear in peace.…



National Guard, Army Corps of Engineers Arrive to Break Ice Jam Causing Bismarck Flooding

Bismarck, North Dakota — A major winter storm turned into an unexpected disaster in Bismarck when ice jams blocked the Missouri River and caused flooding in the Fox Island and Southport neighborhoods. Governor John Hoeven called on the Corps of Engineers for assistance, and they began arriving Monday night, during the blizzard, along with a team from FEMA.

Governor Hoeven asked the Corps to slow the flow from Garrison Dam, about 35 miles above Bismarck on the Missouri, when the river began to rise and fill roads in the southwest part of Bismarck. By Wednesday, the Corps completely stopped water flow into the river, something that has never before happened in the 50+ year history of Garrison Dam (the largest earth-filled dam in the country). The rising waters were caused mainly by large chunks of thick ice that entered the Missouri from the flooding of two tributaries, the Heart and Knife rivers. The large chunks came together and made a large ice jam.

On Wednesday, March 25, an Army Corps of Engineers expert in ice jams, along with an expert in explosives, were set down on the ice by Black Hawk helicopters flown down by the Minot Air Base. They also dropped air boats, since the edges of the ice jam were dangerously thin. In the portions of the jam that were between 2 and 3 feet thick, the engineers drilled between 76 and 80 holes in two parallel rows down the length of the ice, and filled them with C-4 explosive matieral. Their hope was that the result would be a channel through which river water could flow downstream. The first explosion went off at about 4:30 p.m. on Wednesday. The National Guard protected the public by maintaining a boundary 3000 feet away from the east bank of the river.

The first explosion caused some deterioration of the ice, according to National Guard General Spryncznatyk in a press conference Wednesday night. To improve the river flow, the team of engineers, helicopter pilots, and National Guard returned to the ice at around 8:00 p.m., and repeated the process, using lights set out on the ice. They exploded the C-4 at about 11:00 p.m. A third explosion is planned for this afternoon.

Meanwhile, more flooding started in other parts of the city Wednesday morning when river water caused storm drains to back up. Three trailer parks in south-central Bismarck were evacuated, and a fourth put on alert. Pumping trucks owned by the city, along with two more provided by the National Guard, started pumping Wednesday afternoon and are still hard at work. Meanwhile streets south of Expressway and west of Washington remain impassible, along with portions of University Drive, south 12th Street, and other streets in southeastern Bismarck, where streets are still flooded, although the water level has dropped over a foot in the last 24 hours. My sister was one of those evacuated from southwest Bismarck on Wednesday morning. She's staying in a hotel, but three public shelters have been set up in the northeast part of the city on higher ground. The shelters are in three large churches, and are being manned by volunteers along with the Bismarck Red Cross staff.

City engineering and public works personnel were able to get into Fox Island by foot this morning, and have been checking each home for water level, structural integrity, and the safety of electrical and gas lines. They'll be followed by a environmental team who will check those homes that had, or still have, water, and were tagged by the first teams. Residents can begin returning to Fox Island this afternoon, unless their homes are tagged. The streets are still flooded, however, so anyone returning will have to wade to their homes. Southport homes are next on the list to be checked.

Since Tuesday night, over 1.5 million sandbags have been filled by volunteers from the city, including high school and college students, along with National Guard personnel. These sandbags have been provided free of charge to home owners whose property is threatened by rising waters. People who have taken them are asked to keep them, even if the need has passed now, because more snow is on the way and the amounts and effects of that precipitation are still unclear. There is also a large ice jam north of the city, near DoubleDitch, which may break on its own, causing a large amount of water to move quickly into the Bismarck area. The city is keeping over 50,000 sandbags in its shop building, in case they are needed if more storm drains start to back up.

It's possible that ultimately these sandbags will be sent to Fargo or Grand Forks, where the Red River is threatening to crest at a level higher than that of the hundred year flood in 1997. National Guard and FEMA personnel, along with volunteers, including some students from the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks, have been sandbagging on top of the Fargo dikes. Over 1.3 million sandbags have been placed. In Grand Forks, the river is high enough that only one bridge remains open between Grand Forks, ND, and East Grand Forks in Minnesota. The Red River is expected to crest this weekend in Fargo, although weather could cause a change in the estimated time; Grand Forks residents can expect the Red to crest there sometime next week.

It's not just people who are suffering. In the Linton area, where most of the town has been evacuated, it's calving time on the surrounding ranches. Livestock loss estimates vary, but are probably over 100 cattle, and at least that many calves. Some hope was given to ranchers when the Black Hawks inspecting the ice reported seeing some cattle on ice in the river, but whether or not they can be rescued isn't known.

President Obama has declared North Dakota a disaster area. City and state governments still have no estimate of the cost of the damage caused by snow and flooding so far; their emphasis is on the safety of residents of the state. Governor Hoeven stated in a press conference at 11:00 a.m. this morning that it could be weeks before the full extent of the damage, and its cost, is known, but he believes it is enough that the federal relief package will include help for individuals who have lost their homes or suffered severe damage and financial loss.

North Dakotans are expressing gratitude for all the help from the National Guard, many of whom spent a 24-hour stretch filling sandbags, often with bare hands; the Corps of Engineers ice experts, explosive experts, and the men who dared to walk on the ice in the dark; the personnel from the Minot Air Base who came down to do "something they've never done before" together with the Corps; the 25 person team from FEMA, and most of all for our neighbors, because everyone is to be pitching in to help in whatever way they can.

(Sources: , , 3/26/09 press conference with Bismarck & Mandan mayors, Congressman Earl Pomeroy, National Guard General Spryncznatyk, and City Commissioner Connie Spryncznatyk I attended at 11:00 a.m. today)…



How to Become a Wireline Logging Engineer: Part 4

The basic engineers' training school is a major huddle to cross in the effort to becoming a wireline logging engineer. After completing the basic engineer's training school, the new engineer is on his or her way to achieving the dream of becoming a professional wireline logging engineer. The next stage of the training is the post-school. The post-school training is designed to help the new engineer gain more practical experience through hand-on practice and performance of various wireline logging operations under the supervision of a mentor or a senior engineer. The new engineer is assigned a mentor during the post-school period who will direct the post-school tasks and monitor progress and performance. This period also allows the new engineer to build his or her confidence in delivering quality services to the customer during his or her career in the coming years.

The new engineer practices his or her human relationship and emotional aspect of the job by interacting with crew members and customers during this period. Post-school also exposes the new engineer to the administrative, leadership, and management aspect of the job through interaction with other support groups in the organization. The objective of the mentor is to train the new engineer to breakout in three months or less. Breaking out is a process in which the engineer demonstrates his or her ability to mobilize, prepare, execute, and deliver high quality services to the customer without help from the mentor or other senior engineers. When the new engineer can do this, he or she is deemed competent enough to execute job and deliver products to the customer solo. Breaking out is the final right of passage the new engineer must go through to join the professional group of wireline logging engineers.

The breakout process is usually very formal and followed strictly and documented by the company. The first step is for the mentor of the new engineer to inform the location manager about the new engineer's readiness for the final breakout test. The location managers then assigns a complete open hole or cased hole job scheduled for a customer to the new engineer as his or her breakout test. The engineer will select and mobilize the equipment and crew for the job. He or she will also verify that the equipment is in good functional condition for the job. In addition, the engineer will organize the load out and transportation of the equipment and crew to the well site with help from logistics if required. To ensure smooth operation and customer satisfaction, the engineer must coordinate with the customer's representative to understand the customer's expectations. Important information to obtain from the customer include the logging program, the purpose of the job, time to arrive at the location, well condition, final products, and all other necessary information. At the well site the engineer and his or her crew must execute the job safely, effectively, timely, and professionally to pass the breakout test. If the engineer encounters any problem during the job, he or she must demonstrate the ability to troubleshoot, find, and fix the problem in a professional and timely manner.

In addition the engineer must demonstrate good leadership in dealing with the crew and influencing them to work together harmoniously to meet the customer's objectives. The engineer must also demonstrate good communication with the customer and deliver the appropriate products accurately, professionally, and to the satisfaction of the customer. The mentor or a senior engineer accompanies the engineer to the job site as an observer to evaluate the performance of the engineer on the breakout test. The outcome depends on the judgment of the observer who determines if the engineer has passed or failed the breakout test. If the engineer passes the test he or she joins the prestigious group of professional wireline logging engineer. This means he or she can start running revenue generating jobs unaided and enjoys the full benefits of a wireline logging engineer. On the hand, if he or she fails the test, the next step depends on the management. In some cases, the management will grant a second chance for the engineer to breakout. Otherwise the management will either assign the engineer to less difficult tasks or release him or her from the organization.

On average it takes about 18 months from hire to breakout for an engineer to qualify as a professional wireline logging engineer. The training process costs a great deal of money and time. This is why organizations take extreme care in selecting candidates to hire as potential wireline engineers. This concludes this series about how to become a wireline logging engineer. I hope this will help young and ambitious engineers out there to make up their minds about becoming a wireline logging engineer as a career in an oil field services organization.…



How Become a Wireline Logging Engineer: Part 3

After the pre-school period, the new employee should have a good outlook and understanding of what it entails to be a wireline logging engineer. By this time the prospective candidate must have witnessed many field operations on oil rigs and learn a great deal of the responsibilities, performance expectations, and duties of a wireline logging engineer. The new hire should have enough information at this point to decide if the job fits his or her profile and likes the life style. A large percentage of potential aspiring logging engineers leave after the pre-school period. Depending on the location, extra time may be made available for the pre-school period to allow the new engineer learn more and familiarize himself or herself to the intricacies of the trade. If there is any doubt as to the suitability of the job to the individual or the individual suitability for the job, this is the time to quit with honor and dignity.

If an applicant decides that this is the job he or she wants to do, then the next stage which is the formal Basic engineers' training starts. The basic engineers' training school is a 12 to 15 weeks intensive training of new engineers on how to acquire, evaluate, and interpret petrophysical data from oil and gas wells using various basic sensors packaged in high technology data acquisition instruments. The trainee engineers learn both the theoretical and practical aspects of each sensor. The theoretical aspect covers the physics, application, packaging, and presentation to the market place. The practical aspect addresses the operation, acquisition, interpretation, limitations, and maintenance of the equipment. Because of the number of basic sensors available and to ensure all the training covers all of them, activity is intensive and scheduling is extremely tight.

Trainees should expect to work long hours under intense pressure similar to actual situation on the oil or gas rig site. Performance expectation is high and trainees must pass each class in order to advance to the next one. To pass a test, a trainee must score 80% or higher. Trainees cannot repeat a test because of the tight schedule and has to be released when he or she has failed a test. When released, the trainee goes back to his or her home location to find out his or her status. Some locations will allow the trainee to stay ad gain more practical experience before attempting the school again. Other locations dismiss the trainee to find a new job. The decision is entirely up to the location management. Having to let a trainee go in the middle of an expensive training program is wasteful for the location and the organization. This is the reason why it is important to carry out a thorough hiring process and identify as accurately as possible those applicants who may likely withstand the rigor involved in training and working as a wireline field engineer.

On the other hand, a trainee that makes it through the basic training is tough, discipline, hardworking and confident. Because the conditions in the basic training school replicate very closely the conditions in the actual field operation, engineers who make it through the school is confident to make it as a professional field engineer. At the end of the basic school, successful trainees return to their various locations to begin the post-school period as permanent employees of the organization. The training continues in the post-school stage details of which will form the topic of discussion in part 4.…



AKG K240 Headphones: Reasonable Sound for Audio Engineers

For any home recording studio, AKG k240 Studio headphones provide the best quality for the least amount of money, allowing independent recording engineers hindered by even the most restricted budgets to utilize equipment on a professional level. I have studied recoding engineering for over 2 years and have continued to be impressed by AKG's product selection which varies from high-quality professional equipment used by popular mainstream recording artists to consumer grade mics and headphones. This model has a wide, dynamic audio bandwidth of 15-25.000 Hz, clearly qualifying them for use in professional studios despite their reasonable price. Professional engineers that I have learned under have endorsed AKG headphones and amateur independent recording artists/engineers have also expressed to me their satisfaction when using AKG headphones. These headphones are lightweight with a 10 foot cord and they come with a screw-on stereo adaptor, enhancing their compatibility no matter how advanced or primitive your recording rig is. I have recorded both rock and rap music using the k240 model and found their performance to be extremely well rounded in comparison to other studio headphones. The k240's presentation of heavy bass frequencies is astounding, refusing to distort when my old pair of SONY headphones would've easily been overpowered, making them a practical and sensible choice for hip-hop and R&B recording. Not only do these particular phones stand their ground against the meanest bass lines and drum kicks, they have the potential to present treble tones in breathtaking detail, leaving higher frequencies from, say, vocals, wind instruments or guitars preserved. The earpieces themselves are Gimbal suspended, making them, by definition, about as comfortable to wear as headphones can possibly be. Mingle this with the k240's adjustable headband, which is also extremely flexible, and single ear usage of this product becomes an easy task that involves no ear pinching or discomfort. They are compatible with virtually any type of audio, be it DVD Mp3 or whatever sound you may be working with. The AKG organization is so committed to satisfying every dynamic of the recording industry that they have service locations across the globe that can repair or replace damaged AKG equipment. This company has really raised the bar as far as the audio experience goes since they recommend these phones for not only professional use, but personal as well, suggesting their usage with ipods or CD players. Their size seems a bit cumbersome to qualify as take-on-the-go material, but I empathize with the idea because of the comfort these phones provide along with their supreme quality compared to even the biggest, most known brands.…



Careers in Forensics: Forensic Engineer

Forensic Engineer - Duties, Certification, Education & PayForensic engineers study physical systems that have failed in some way, in order to better understand why they failed.

Background Needed to Be a Forensic Engineer

Forensic engineering is a specialty within engineering, and so a forensic engineer at the very least will need to have a bachelor’s degree in engineering. A graduate degree is recommended. Appropriate areas of engineering that can be especially valuable for a forensic engineer include civil engineering, electrical engineering, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, and traffic engineering.

A forensic engineer will then need to obtain an engineering license. Further training from organizations such as the American Society of Civil Engineers is available to hone one’s skills. Often a certain amount of continuing education is required to maintain one’s license.

In order to better convey their findings in court, forensic engineers will sometimes have a background in law or communications.

What Does a Forensic Engineer Do?

Forensic engineers piece together a series of events to see what went wrong and why.

For example, a forensic engineer might investigate a traffic accident and use the physical evidence of tire marks and the location of broken glass and other debris to understand whether one of the vehicles was traveling at an illegal and unsafe speed, whether the brakes failed, etc. Or the forensic engineer might investigate a fire to ascertain where and how it started, thus making a case for or against arson.

Forensic engineering also comes into play when investigating such matters as building and bridge collapses. The forensic engineer will look for structural flaws, examine maintenance history, study the effects of untoward events such as earthquakes on the structure, etc.

Often a forensic engineer will be called upon to testify in court, for both criminal and civil cases, such as wrongful injury suits and patent disputes.

Career Prospects for a Forensic Engineer

Forensic engineers may be self-employed, work for small or large businesses, or work for government agencies. It’s common for forensic engineering to be part time work, for forensic engineers to be hired on a case by case basis as needed. They might then spend the rest of their time working for private employers or universities on other engineering projects.

Forensic engineering jobs have been on the rise in recent years, and that trend is expected to continue. Early in their career, forensic engineers typically make $40,000 to $60,000 per year. With five years or more of experience, they might make $60,000 to $80,000. With ten years or more experience, they might even top $100,000.


Karen Murdock, “Forensic Engineer Training.” eHow.
Dale Nute, “Advice About a Career in Forensic Science.” The Florida State University College of Criminology & Criminal Justice.
“Forensic Engineer.” Forensic Science.
“So You Want to Be a Forensic Scientist!” American Academy of Forensic Scientists.…



How to Install an Engineered Wood Floor

Installing a floating floor is an easy home project even for those who believe they have few if any home project skills. The basic tools required are a measuring tape, pencil, chalk line, chop saw or miter box with hand saw, dead blow hammer, carpenter's wood glue, utility knife, 1/4 inch spacers, and jamb saw.

After deciding on the type of floor you are going to float engineered or laminate, I prefer the engineered wood floor. It is real wood on top of several plywood layers that provide strength and resistance to warping and cupping. Additionally the engineered floors are factory pre-finished with a very durable baked finished and come in many wood species and varieties of finishes and styles. Finally, in the event they become marred they can be sanded and refinished. The first step is to measure the square footage needed for the area of the room and add at least another 10% to account for waste during installation. Once the flooring is delivered to your house allow it to acclimate to the house environment for at least 72 hours for increased stability prior to installation.

The next step is to assess the subfloor of the room in which the new flooring is going to be installed. After removing all of the old flooring or carpeting and its padding, be sure to remove all remaining nails, tacks or staples. Any that are left may show through in the new flooring. Examine the subfloor for level, squeaks and general condition of the wood. My advice is that if your are not sure that the subfloor is in very good condition then take the extra step of laying a 1/4 inch additional layer of plywood on top of the old subfloor being sure that it is level and that the seams are staggered and do not end on any of the seams of the old sublfoor. This is necessary for strength and stability. I recommend using an adhesive as well as screws for an additional level of certainty as well as to avoid squeaks in the future. Once this is done you are ready to install the flooring.

Most of these floors require an underlayment that provides a protective barrier from moisture, sound reduction, and also lessens the possibility of squeaking. This usually comes in rolls. Simply roll out a length from one end of your room to the other. Lay out a second piece and overlap the first piece by 3-4 inches. Continue this process until the entire room is covered. Each area of overlap is taped together to make a single uniform piece of underlayment.

When deciding which wall to begin laying the floor down, most people select the longest wall because they believe this enhances the look of the floor. However it is really your choice. One can start on a smaller wall. The next thing to do is to make a chalk line that is straight and level. You cannot assume that your wall is true. The chalk line is your reference line for laying the first course of flooring. It should be slightly more than the width of a floor board but no more than 1/4 of an inch wider. I'll explain the reason for this later. Be sure to double check that your chalk line is straight because if it is not then every course of boards placed afterwards will not be straight.

It is extremely important when laying the floorboards that no two seams in adjacent rows end up touching each other. This can easily be avoided by doing the following. Measure the length of the wall your are starting with. Figure out how many full boards can be placed in that row. As an example lets say your room wall is 14 feet and your boards are 4 feet. Then you can have 3 complete boards with a 2 foot piece of board to make up the 14 feet.
From an entire board, measure a two foot piece from the right side (this is to retain the tongue and groove locking mechanism), before cutting the board subtract another 1/2 inch and then make your cut. Place a spacer and abut the cut board flush to the spacer add glue to its groove and place the next board being sure that it interlocks securely, repeat with each succeeding board until the entire row is complete by placing another spacer between the last board and the wall. Note that you may have to use the dead blow hammer and a spare piece of flooring or a tapping block if one is provided to insure that the boards are perfectly interlocked. By adding one foot to the length of the first cut board start the second row using as many full boards as possible. Start the third row by adding another foot to the length of the first board. Then repeat the pattern starting with a two foot piece less the 1/2 inch. This insures that no seams will ever overlap a joint in any two adjoining rows. Important as a matter of precaution after your first three courses are placed take time to inspect that all rows are square, if they are not now is the time to make corrections and not later when much more of the floor has been laid. Complete the process. That extra 10% will come in handy as row starters or finishers. The 1/4 inch gap that is left along each wall is covered by a shoe moulding of 1/4 round style. The gap is necessary to allow for expansion of the floor. The shoe moulding can be bought in widths of 1/4,1/2 or 3/4 inch so that the gap between your wall and the edge of the flooring will be covered. Finally in laying the floor one most certainly will encounter doorways. The jamb saw is a special tool that is not expensive that allows you to cut out the bottom of a jamb so that a piece of the flooring will slide easily underneath it avoiding the need to make a very difficult intricate cut. Simply place a piece of scrap flooring near the jamb and lay the saw on top of it. Cut through the jamb, Your piece of flooring should easily slide under the cut jamb.
Install a transition piece to link the new floor to an adjacent room or hallway.

Your engineered flooring installation is now complete and you have the satisfaction of knowing that you did it yourself.…


Family / Posts

What Car Should I Buy: A Beginner Guide!

What car should I buy for a beginner?

There are several cars you can start with, starting with an economical small car towing a light trailer behind a truck.

It is best to find at least two cars that are affordable and will get you on the road.

Once you know how safe a car is to drive, you can work your way up to a more powerful sports car.

The type of car you should buy depends on your style of driving, safety concerns, your wallet, and your needs as a driver.

When you consider what cars to buy for a beginner, the first thing you need to consider is the safety rating of the vehicle.

Is it worth buying or should you stay away?

How safe is it?

This question is most important when it comes to four-door sedans.

If the car has a low rating, it may not be worth buying, especially if the car will be used for transporting children.

A safe driver can get good grades in school, but that doesn’t mean you can take your car out on the highway without knowing how to drive it.

In fact, some people who are involved in an accident don’t even know how to fix their cars.

That is why it is so important to purchase a safe car.

There are so many different makes and models available on the market today that finding one that has been well maintained can help you avoid any costly repairs in the future.

Before you even begin thinking about what car to buy for a beginner, you want to think about what level of driving you plan to do.

Are you just learning to drive for pleasure or do you have a goal of becoming a safe, dependable driver?

Even if you want to become a safe driver, you can start by selecting a safe car from the beginning.

This is a great way to begin learning how to drive because you won’t have to worry about losing money if you get into an accident or have an accident that costs you lots of money.

The first and best thing you need to do is find out how safe the car you want to purchase is before you even begin looking.

You should first try to find out how much damage each vehicle has been through.

In most cases, vehicles that are sold for cheap are known to be unsafe because they have been abused.

Ask friends or family members if they can recommend any reliable dealers who sell cars for cheap.

If you don’t have anyone who can give you advice [click here] you can always check online to see what other people have said about various dealers.

Another way to find out about the safety of a particular car is to ask around your community.

People living around you will be able to tell you if a car is safe to drive or not.

Of course, you have to take their word for it, but it’s a good idea to ask around.

What car should I buy for a beginner to help them become a safe driver?

It would also be a great idea to find out from your local police force if they know of any reliable dealers in your area.

Ask them for advice.

What car should I buy for a beginner to help them become a safe driver?

If you are new to driving, you should get a vehicle that has a high safety ranking.

High-ranking cars are known to have a reduced chance of having accidents, which means that they are less likely to cost you a lot of money in repairs.

Now that you have found out what car should I buy for a beginner, you should make sure that you are ready to go out and drive it.

You never know when you might have an accident, and it would be horrible if you had an accident while on your first trip with your new car.

You never know when something may happen that could have unforeseen consequences.

That is why it is important to make sure that you are insured because if you get into an accident without insurance, you could owe a lot of money and be unable to get any money to fix the car.…



Zipper Fashion Rosettes

Metal zipper
Fabric scrap
Hot glue
White glue

You might have been saving zippers to sew into other garments, if those zippers go bad, but sewing zippers into clothing isn’t the only way to reuse them. Cut zippers up and use them in an unusual way to make embellishments for fashions and home decorating projects, rosettes for crafting, and other fanciful items. If you already have zippers, you won’t pay a penny for the rosettes, which can be used in many different ways.

Unzip a zipper and cut it, straight across, to remove the zipper pull, and to separate the two sides of the zipper. Since each piece has fabric stitched to it, it’s necessary to remove the cloth. Cut the stitches to remove the biggest part of it; use a lighter to burn off the rest. Remember to hold the zipper with a potholder because the zipper will get hot as you burn the fabric off.

When all of the cloth is off of the zipper it’s the easiest thing to turn it into a rosette. Simply lay it flat on a table and begin winding it around itself. Hold one end down, and wrap the other end around and around the stationary end. You’ll make a flat circle of zipper teeth, which is metallic and lovely. If you want the rosette to be larger than it is when you finish wrapping, use a dot of hot glue to hold the end in place, and start wrapping another zipper-half around it.

The rosette you make is a flat one but you can give it dimension by making another one on top of it. The top rosette should be a bit smaller than the bottom one. Add another rosette, and another, to create the depth that you want; make each rosette smaller than the previous one.

The zipper rosette will be easiest to attach if you glue a piece of cloth or felt to the bottom of it. Glue the finished flower to a purse, a garment, a lampshade, a mirror or picture frame corner, or even a hat. Attach it to a piece of fabric to make a curtain tie-back, or make a large zipper rosette, and turn it into a coaster.

Don’t like the metallic color of the rosette? Paint it! You can easily spray paint the zipper before you start, or paint the rosette when you’re finished. That gives you many options for coordinating colors on your fashions, or for your home decorating.


Internet / Posts

How to Build an Instagram Following From Scratch

With close to 500 million users, and counting, Instagram is slowly becoming a leading social media site, and we will try to help you get your first followers.

Simplicity is a major part of success when it comes to Instagram, and as we live in the society where information overload is a normal thing scrolling through the pictures with short captions seems like a perfect combination.

Both major and minor brands are trying to capitalize on this fast rise, so you should consider start to buy followers for instagram and avoid missing out on this opportunity.

In the next few paragraphs, we will lay down a roadmap and try to explain how to get free instagram likes daily, whether you manage your personal or professional Instagram profile.

1. Figure out your strategy

Before going any further, you should answer these few questions.

What is your end goal on Instagram?

Creating a community of regular paying customers on you web page from followers while providing good service. This is a top priority!

How will your Instagram page affect your business?


Your best bet is to have few established Instagram users in your niche promoting your product in exchange for money or free stuff. This way, you can bring traffic to you web page fast and have a better conversion.

What are you going to offer to your followers?

Ask questions, research, ask your peers what kind of content would they like to see from you. Check what hashtags are your followers using and use them in your posts only if they are relevant, you don’t want to annoy them.

After you got this down, you are ready to move on.

2. Setting up your Instagram profile.

This one is pretty straight forward. You just need to fill some basic info and add your profile picture.

Profile image

You should consider an image that is representing your product or your brand. Logo of your company is always a good solution.

Your bio

If you are not an established brand already, then you need to utilize this feature as much as possible. Make it sound natural and positive; you can also use symbols.

Link to your web page.

If you use Instagram for business, then this one is really important. Add your web page address at the end of your bio. This will give your followers a chance to buy your product and turn them into your customers. Make sure that your web page is mobile friendly; most of the Instagram users are on their mobile phones.

3. Setting up your content plan.

Goals and KPIs (key performance indicators like shares, comments, likes) are essential. Set them and use them to track your progress.
Your next step should be schedule for content uploading. There are various apps that can help you with this like ScheduGram or Simply Measured.


Choose pictures that you are about to post very carefully. Use only pictures that are related to your brand and your brand’s story. Make sure that quality of a picture, description and hashtags are all on point.
When it comes to effectiveness, you should consider this:

Brand-inspired images

Posting beautiful images with a powerful message can bring you a lot of exposure as people tend to react to the images that trigger emotions.
Some of the biggest brands in the world are using this technique and investing money in the production of their photos so they can use the power of visual storytelling to their advantage.

Reactive storytelling

Reactive storytelling is a great way of sparking conversation because when businesses use this technique, they can leverage a human truth or insight to generate instant feedback. This includes a cultural action, a brand relevant action or a niche action.

Inspirational quotes

One of the best ways to create a viral buzz is to trigger a strong emotional response. If you can achieve this, there is a big chance that you are going to see more shares, likes, and comments on your posts.
You should start by preparing ten images; this will be enough for the next three to four days, depends on how you spread them.

A Track Maven released a report suggesting that major brands are getting thirty-seven likes and comments per thousand followers. That’s 3.7 reactions for every hundred followers you make.

4. Build relationships with influencing people

There are places where you can get exposure and more followers like, but there are people that have a big influence, and they are available only through direct contact. You can offer them free promotional stuff for shares, or pay them for the shoutout.


Instagram Direct is probably the best way for you to get in touch with the person who can help you promoting your product. It is private so you can send your offer that only influencer and you can see.

5. Manage your profile

With you profile, your connections and followers in place, it is time to manage your account. You can find a lot of very useful applications that can give you a better overview of your activities and activities on your account and also give you statistic and charts. Always have content ready for deployment and use the schedule as much as possible, it will make your life a lot easier.

How to grow an Instagram account from SCRATCH (With ZERO Followers!) - YouTube

Final thoughts

By now we hope that you realize how easy it is to have a successful Instagram page. Visual content is in high demand, and millions of users are already making a good use of it. Just remember to be clear with your ideas and always be in contact with your followers and respect them so you can see your brand grow and flourish.

Make sure to connect your Instagram page to your other social media accounts. This way you will be able to spread your brand and reach more people.
Leave your comments below and let us know if you had any success with the roadmap that we laid out for you, and how you managed to push your Instagram campaign to the next level.…



Having and Planning Family Night

Family night is growing more popular as children are finding more things outside of the home to do. Here are some tips and ideas to help you plan and have a wonderful family night.

Set a night of the week that everyone will be home and available. Plan your family night for this night.

Tell each family member and post it on the refrigerator, calendar and anywhere else that you can think of that will help remind everyone.

Decide your plans for family night. Do you want to play games, go somewhere else, see a movie or something else creative. There are some tips and ideas at the end of this article.

Do any shopping that is needed for that night prior to the scheduled night. This will reduce the stress on you.

On the planned day be sure to remind everyone that that night is family night and what time it is planned for.

Enjoy the night with your family and have lots of fun.


For each family night, choose a different family member and make on of their favorite meals.

Choose games that everyone enjoys. Some popular games are Monopoly, Uno, Yahtzee, Scrabble, Cranium and Trivial Pursuit. If you don’t have any games you can do several things to get some. Go to and sign up. Once signed up post a wanted ad for games and activities. Search at garage sales and thrift stores. You would be surprised what you can find in these places. If all else fails, and you can afford it, go to the store and purchase new ones.

Family night doesn’t have to be indoors or about games. You can take it outside or anywhere. Go to the park, play volleyball, go swimming, go to a museum, go to a movie, etc.

Make sure that everyone feels included. This will make family night much easier on you and more exciting for everyone else.

Try to do something different each night. Don’t tell everyone what activities you have planned. This will heighten the enjoyment and anticipation. Repeating the same activity will bore them and discourage everyone from wanting to do it again.

Don’t put too much pressure on yourself to plan the perfect night. This will discourage you from wanting to plan and do this again. Remember this is supposed to be fun. Things happen and it is OK. Just pick it up and try again.

If you have little children, plan many different things. Remember that young children have a smaller attention span and will lose interest quickly.

Ideas for young children could be anything such as reading books, playing with blocks or legos, coloring, doing crafts (also good for older children as well), watching a movie, playing outside, going to the park, etc.

Remember that family night is not about what you do. It is about being together as a family and enjoying each others company and time.

If it doesn’t go great the first time, don’t give up. Use this time as an example and change the way you do things and what you plan for the next time.

Once you start having weekly family nights, sit down at the end of each one and ask for suggestions for other family nights. This helps everyone feel involved and helps you come up with new ideas.

Try having a themed night. This could include Hawaiian night, pajama party, camping or whatever else you can think of. This makes things fun and exciting and you can come up with some pretty creative stuff to do.

Have a night where you all make the meal together or instead of making a meal, everyone makes their favorite snack. (It’s OK to do this every once in a while.)

I hope these ideas have helped you come up with some activities and a great way to plan your family night. Enjoy your family and the time you have together.…